Rapid development in microelectronics has revolutionized all facets of human life over the last forty years. This revolution is focused on the miniaturization of semiconductor devices with a direct effect on integrated circuit ( IC) efficiency and cost. The transistor dimension is currently less than 100 nanometers (10-9 metres) and billions of transistors operate together on a single chip with dimensions of this order. The real limitations connected with very small-dimensional materials and progression technology would soon prevent the continued development of microelectronic technology. Many alternative approaches are being explored in light of these limitations. An age of nanotechnology is evolving that it deals with materials, devices, and systems over a nanometer or nuclear measure matter control. This will be predicted that Nanotechnology will take along another technological revolt that will transform the social lifecycle again. Nanotechnology is a wider word used to define different features of science and technology used in the study, operation, and control of separate molecules and particles, the construction of machines on a human cell scale, or the development of nano-scale materials and products that enable new applications. It is supposed to be the next industrial revolution, even though nanotechnology is still in its budding phase.
There are three broad categories in nanotechnology.
A. Nano Bio Technology
Nano biotechnology is the synthesis of Nano measure engineering and ability to control existing structures rightly to create naturally enthused resources and strategies in the molecular stage. It is possible to carry numerous health-associated inventions – from quite embattled medicine distribution systems to progressively biocompatible inserts and prosthetics. Physic physics is another interesting area of request that will, for specimen, let pictures to be interpreted and seen by sightless persons. In fields such as molecular calculation, optoelectronic strategies, and bioelectronics, bio-molecular analogues also have great potential. Molecular motors, as found within alive cells, form one of the most fascinating areas of investigation. Examples of materials to facilitate specific things resolve by its dimension, compact, and shapes on the nanoscale are the molecular structure blocks of lifespan: proteins, nucleic acids, phospholipids, celluloses, and their non-biological mimics. Recent understandings into the use of nanofabricated strategies and systems indicate that by using nanofabricated surfaces, today’s arduous procedure of genome sequencing and sensing the appearance of genes can be finished significantly more effective. The precision of diagnostics and therapeutics will be revolutionized by extending our capacity to classify the genetic makeup of a person. Nanotechnology can offer new constructions and pathways for drug distribution in addition to promoting optimum drug use, enormously increasing their therapeutic potential. Elementary readings in cell biology and pathology would also greatly benefit from growing nanotechnological capabilities. It is fetching progressively probable to label the chemical & mechanical belongings of cells (counting procedures such as cell partition and movement) & to quantify the possessions of sole particles, as an effect of the growth of new systematic gears accomplished of measuring the environment of the nanometer. Thus, these capabilities complement (and mainly complement) the average collaborative approaches commonly used in the life disciplines. Furthermore, biocompatible great presentation resources will affect from regulatory their nanostructure.
B. Nano Technology in Indian Context
As a possible candidate, nanotechnology is being offered to experiment the semiconductor engineering, which is a significant commercial engine nowadays and ended the next insufficient years. The researchers identified two potential approaches to the acquisition of nanostructures within the 1-100 nanometer size regimes. The first one is the lithography-based “top-down” technique that is commonly used to manufacture integrated circuits. On the single atom stage, it has been considerably effective but lacks power. The next is the “bottom-up” tactic in which from single atoms and nanostructures, complex structures are assembled. Both business / souk contemplations and social reflections are in fashion nowadays with respect to tenders. Electronics, hygiene, transport, food processing, packaging, computing and security are the segments to be discussed in commercial applications. The concerns that are being discussed from a societal point of view are in three main groups, namely “Green, Red and Black.” Water, electricity and the climate are the Green questions. The Red issues include the center’s human health problems and Black topics apply to the Soldierly, such as Bio-warfare. The use of nanotechnology is expected to solve problems related to all of these categories which will, in turn, minimize social stresses to a large degree and make the planet a harmless and innocent residence to alive. An actual careful analysis of all four sizes related to nanotechnology and its tenders is needed to establish a practical programme for a evolving country like India. If one appearance at the top-down approach used for nanotechnology, it is generally related to the delay of ongoing microelectronics investigation and growth, and this approach will contribute mainly to the evolution of computing, nanoelectronics, telecommunications and transportation technologies and applications. In reality, nanoelectronics, which dominates nanotechnology applications today, currently appears to be dominating this approach. The bottom-up method, which is fundamentally the method of environment by which cheap, plentiful and lifeless nano-scale constituents are transformed into “self-generating, self-perpetuating, self-repairing, self-aware, walking, swimming, seeing, thinking and even dreaming creatures”. A human nano engineering brand is now developing and the query is “What if we might generate belongings the way fauna does, bit by bit and particle by particle.” Nano scale engineering achieves the functionality and speed in the top-down method, but control is not obtained on the simple atom or molecule unit. This does not eliminate the feature dependency on the method parameters. Although the properties of the basic unit’s atoms / molecules are regulated in the bottom-up method, the functionality is not based on the process parameters. Profitable and manufacturing requests have arisen to seem on the prospect with respect to the application of nanotechnology. Viable candidates for future ICs have emerged in the nano electronics sector of carbon nano tubes and molecular electron devices, further strengthening the IC market. In the area of nano scale engineering, there are many serious efforts in the coming years with the potential to generate businesses in the field of medications, dyes, wrapping things, etc. Applications with social consequences are projected to begin emerging in the current period itself, such as inexpensive aquatic sanitization, self-cleaning, vanishing mitigation and purification technologies, which might have a huge effect by supplying constant provisions of fresh aquatic. In the zone of safety, developments in nano sciences, nanotechnology might variety since initial cautionary valuation and comeback scheme to improve conclusion provision schemes fresh non-lethal arms might too appear.