Today we are in a globalized environment, by which the Manufacturing process has become a major and predominant by its production process capabilities and made it possible for us to improve the technology to reach mars has made possible. We are going to discuss the manufacturing process by this, we can have more details about the process and how it is further classified based on its process. The manufacturing process can be classified into six major groups, the groups of the manufacturing process are shown in the figure-1.
Figure-1: Six groups of the manufacturing process.
Casting process, this is the first group, a basic and Primary form. With the help of the casting process, most of the major components and machinery are produced. In the casting process, the production of a solid body is made from shapeless material (molten liquid metal). The starting material phase is liquid, plastic, pulpy, powdery or gas, depending on the process a cohesion is created and made into the required shapes. However, components can also be manufactured primarily formed from pure weld metal and alloys based on the need and demand. Casting the best-known method of moulding process (open die, pressure die, investment casting, etc.). The cast engine block is shown in the figure-2.
Figure-2: Component made from the casting process.
The forming process is categorized under the group-2, this process describes the plastic change in the shape of a solid body, to get its final shape. The common forming processes are rolling, free-forming and deep drawing. The component made from the deep drawing process is shown in figure-3
Figure-3: Component made from the deep drawing process
The machining process comes under the group-3, the material removal is by all methods of cutting, removing or dismantling, polishing are done to meet the requirement based on the materials property. In this process, the materials are made closer to the dimensions specified in the drawings. The turning process of the shaft is shown in the figure-4.
Figure-4: Shaft machining – a turning process
Joining process also called a welding process which is classified in this group-4. Welding is a permanent joining process in which two or more parts are joined together to form a continuum. The materials to be joined are manufactured using heat or power or both and with or without welding filler material. The welding of a pipe is shown in the figure-5. Welding can also be used for coating and remelting.
Figure-5: Pipe component welding process.
Coating process comes under the group-5. The coating process creates cohesion on the surface of the component. They connect workpieces or apply a firmly adhering layer to the surface of workpieces. The coating includes all processes of hot-dip dipping or painting (coating from the liquid state), but also coating by welding, soldering, vapor deposition or dusting. The coatings are done to have corrosion resistant, heat resistant, wear-resistant, insulation etc. The coated components are shown in the figure-6.
Figure-6: Components coated from the various coating process.
Changing Material properties
Changing the material properties is the main goal of the group-6. The need for changing the properties of the material is to help the material to serve its application used for the specific need. This involves changes in the sub-microscopic or atomic range (diffusion, chemical reactions, and dislocations in the atomic lattice). The changes can be obtained by various process like Solidification peening, heat treatment, thermomechanical treatment, sintering, magnetizing belong to the processes of this main group. The tempered steel at various temperature is shown in the figure-7.
Figure-7: The image of tempered steel.
The joining process
Joining is defined as the “permanently applied connection or other bringing together of two or more workpieces with a geometrically determined fixed shape or of precisely such workpieces with shapeless material; in the process, cohesion is created locally and increased overall ”. The production sequence for all processes is designed in such a way that there are an initial shape and an end shape, a blank and a finished part. There are essentially three characteristics that determine weldability for the special process of welding. They are:
- Welding possibility and
- Welding safety
The weldability is a material property. It is an inherent material property, if the chemical, physical and metallurgical properties of the material allow the materials to be joined without problems. While the chemical composition of the influences of the material, among other things, the formation of cracks and the tendency to harden, the physical properties of the materials determine the thermal conductivity and expansion, melting point, strength and toughness. Metallurgical properties such as the type of melting and the heat treatment state affect the structure and grain size, among other things.
The possibility of welding is a production characteristic and therefore characterizes the professional preparation, execution and follow-up, among other things through the use of the corresponding welding processes. Other production-related factors are such as, the type of connection (the type of joint, joint shape), the selection of welding consumables and auxiliary materials, heat management (preheating, interpass temperature, post-heat treatment), welding sequence and all mechanical and chemical post-treatment of the weld seam (brushing, grinding, pickling, passivation).
Welding safety is understood to be the structural design that must fulfil its function under the specified operating and load conditions. Welding safety, therefore, influences the structural design (force flow, seam arrangement, component thickness, notch effects) and the load condition (temperature, corrosion, type and level of stresses).
Welding and related process
The welding processes are classified according to the energy source based on the physical properties of fusion and pressure welding. The energy carriers are solid bodies, liquids and gases, electrical, gas discharge, radiation, movement of the masses and electrical current. These energy carriers transfer the energy required for welding to the workpiece or are made available by converting the energy. Hybrid welding uses two or more welding processes at the same time.
During fusion welding, the joining surfaces are melted. As a rule, welding consumables are used and no external force is used.
Plastic deformation takes place during pressure welding. An external force is used and work is carried out without welding consumables.
- figure-1: KAMAL BASHA K
- 01 cast product wiki: en.wikipedia.org
- 04 deep drawn component: en.wikipedia.org
- 05 Turning process: en.wikipedia.org
- 06 Welding process: en.wikipedia.org
- 07 metal coating: https://www.buser-ot.ch/home/coatings/metal-coating/?oid=164&lang=en
- 08 heat treatment: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_treating#/media/File:Tempering_standards_used_in_blacksmithing.JPG
- Featured image: KAMAL BASHA K