Impact of climate change on water resources
Water is the most critical resource
issue of our life time and our
Children’s lifetime. The health of our
Waters is the principal measure of
How we live on land.
“Neerindri Amayathu Ulagu” is a couplet contain seven words in Thirukkural by Thiruvalluvar under “The blessing of rain” chapter, yes whenever we think about the water this kural comes up. Importance of water can be clearly explained in 450 BCE Era. The civilization development in early period started from river side. Further increase in population made them understand the importance of water and started to preserve it in different ways based on their knowledge. Water reaches the earth in the form of rain drop. The productivity in agricultural form, variety of crop sown is based on climate variability , thereby continuous monitoring of weather that lasts over a long period of time is required to predict the pattern. They felt water is life without it they can’t survive. Ever since the industry revolution and the growth of industries, it has taken a heavy toll on the atmosphere and caused global warming.
Water and Climate Change
Water is not only necessary to human life, it also a key ingredient to industries for manufacturing and agriculture. The preservation in form of conservation and optimum uses of limited available water is great importance to the economic development. In India at present 16% of global population have only 4% of total water resources and some part of our country start facing the scarcity.
According to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPCC) that any human activity that affects the atmosphere directly or indirectly reflects on the climate over a period of time. Indirectly human activity changes the compositions of global atmosphere. Global warming is defined as increase in earth’s average temperature. The increase in temperature causes the glaciers to melt and results in floods. In long term, these glaciers will fade and cause the river to dry up and droughts to occur. In hydro logical cycle process evaporation and precipitation are the main reason to influence the shift of climate change.
If Precipitation patterns change? Then how?? There may be more intensive rainfall on rainy days and more dry days in a year. The effect of flooding and droughts are also severe and same category they are loss of food security, economic activity, more water borne diseases and less access to clean water.
Overview of the climate change on Groundwater resources
Ground water is one of the primary water resources, and play a key role in studying the effect of climate change. During the hydrological cycle the surface water gets evaporated and gets back in form of precipitation. Through this cycle surface water keeps the soil in moisture condition that in turn will recharge the underground water. Climatic changes influences the cycle process and water precipitation on the surface level thus gets reduced that shall directly affect the underground water resources.
Ground water levels can be recharged by the water bodies precipitation on the surfaces which directly influences climate changes especially high temperature and that is why state government advises us to build a storage for harvesting rain water in form of tank so that ground water level alias bore well water level shall improve.
Predicted climate change impacts on water
Changes in the precipitation pattern will affect the hydraulic structures and its water management purpose. Industrial development that primarily depends on water availability might also get affected in future. But if we follow some policies as early as possible then we can save our future generation from water scarcity. Assessments carried out by IITM regarding the impact of climate change on the future concludes the following.
- The hydro-logical cycle will be more intense by annual higher average rainfall.
- According to prediction there is a chance of more precipitation in Godavari basin at end of 21st century among others; Ganga and Krishna basins
- Number of Rainy days is also going to change which inturn predicts that the western part of Ganga reservoir will decrease
- Intensity of daily rainfall is also predicted to be high.
- Surface water availability will be high during rainy day but when rains fail to follow the pattern in summer season then it shall result in insufficient water availability for per capita demand
Adding new dams is the solution for water scarcity problem ??
During the 1960s and 1970s most of large dams are constructed. But recent talks about the new proposal for new dam project have started emerging with the promise of improved water supplies to feed the increasing urban population, improvement in irrigation zone level, expecting changes in precipitation patterns accompanying by climate change.
As per expected prediction, if new dam constructions get implemented then the water efficiency and conservation will improve slightly. But still new dam cost construction is expensive given its countable benefits. Potential idea is to form new strategies based on the demand and find alternative ways to improve and save the source of water supply. Only problem of this climate changes is due to our industrialization. Currently we come to know that due to covid 19 lockdown in the first two phases resulting in non-functioning of industry gives less polluted environment, an amount of change in the ozone layer is observed. The main reason behind this much desired change in global atmosphere is our activities in the fast moving world using more artificial energy fail to preserve our environment. Hence it is concluded that, try to preserve our own water resources using innovative ideas instead of developing new dams at great costs. Water resources can be recharged by frequent monitoring of the weather changes. Maintain soil excavation to the bare minimum level. Construct small lakes in traditional methods. A duty of citizen is to follow the policies laid down by our ministry of water resources. Let’s we take an oath that we Indians can save our priceless resources.
- cycle of crops: https://images.app.goo.gl/pAaUyuVwXfi24n5j9
- alaska collage: https://images.app.goo.gl/no4vFKeq2uUb5kPDA
- cycle: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), (2006). “IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories", prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (eds). (IGES: Japan, 2006), 16.
- rainfall prediction: http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/files/india-climate-5-water-DEFRA.pdf
- 1-Climate-Change-Affects-Various-Aspects-of-Californias-Water-Resources: https://images.app.goo.gl/YPUN4PgDAK9CoNg3A