The Electric Vehicle (EV)

Source: afdc.energy.gov

Battery electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) use an external power source to charge an on-board battery. BEVs use only electric motors powered by batteries. PHEVs use electric motors and engines. The range of BEVs is from 80 to 335 miles and the range of PHEVs is 10 to 50 miles.  PHEVs use electric motors up to the complete discharge of the battery. After complete discharging of the battery, the vehicle switches to the engine.  The common name for BEVs and PHEVs is Electric Vehicles (EVs).

Benefits of EVs

The benefits of EVs include the following.

  • Zero tailpipe emission,
  • Reduced GreenHouse Gases (GHGs),
  • Less noise pollution,
  • Fun to drive mode,
  • Cheaper fuel usage and
  • more convenience.

Key Components of EVs

Source: Akhil Rajeev Kumar, University of Aberdeen

The below list shows the important components of EVs.

  • Battery,
  • Charge port,
  • Converter, Power-driven motor, Onboard charger,
  • Power electronics controller,
  • Thermal management system,
  • Transmission battery pack and
  • Transmission.

Battery

The supplementary battery provides energy to power vehicle accessories in an electric drive vehicle.  The charge port allows the vehicle to connect to an external power supply.  This is for the purpose of charging the traction battery pack.

Electric Traction Motor and Converter

DC/DC converter is converting high voltage DC power to low voltage DC power.  Low voltage DC power is restoring the battery and running vehicle accessories. The vehicle is driven by the electric traction motor using power from the traction battery pack. For performing both the drive and regeneration functions, some vehicles use motor generators.

Other Components

AC power is provided through the charge port. The onboard charger is converting the AC power to DC electricity. DC electricity is charging the power battery.  Battery features are voltage, current, temperature and state of charge during charging the pack. Onboard charger is  monitoring the battery features. The traction battery is delivering the movement of electrical energy. An Electric traction motor is producing the speed and torque. Power electronics controller is managing the traction battery and electrical traction motor. The thermal cooling system is maintaining the appropriate operating temperature of the battery, power-driven motor, power electronics and other constituents. The electrical traction motor uses the stored electricity. The traction battery pack is storing the electricity. The transmission system is driving the wheels. An Electric traction motor transfers the driving power to the transmission system.

EVs Market in India

EVs segments include electric two wheeler, three wheeler, electric cars and electric buses. The various EVs public charging infrastructure include Type 1 AC (upto 3.3kW), Type 2 AC (3-22kW) and Fast DC (15-150kW). According to the transport ministry, nearly 4,00,000 registered EVs run in India currently. The population of battery operated vehicles is nearly 1,39,000 in Uttar Pradesh 76,000 in Delhi and 15,192 in Assam.

Factors for EV sales

The below list shows the factors responsible for electric vehicles sales.

  • Charging infrastructure,
  • Cost,
  • Range and
  • Awareness.

The size of Indian electric vehicle component market reached $536.1 million in 2019. The projected size of Indian vehicle component market is $216.3 Billion by 2030.

Indian Manufacturers of EVs

Source: www.hyundai.com

Kona Electric from Hyundai motor company, E-Verito & e2o from Mahindra electric mobility limited, ZS EV from MG motor and Tigor EV 2019 (Only for Commercial drives) & Nexon EV 2020 from Tata Motors  are the variants in electric cars existing in India. In India, the establishments involved in electric motor cycle development are Revolt Motors (models of RV400 & RV300), Tork Motors (models to be launched), Emflux Motors (models to be launched) and Ultraviolette Automotive.

The establishments involved in electric scooter development are listed below.

  • Ather Energy in Bangalore,
  • Bajaj Chetak in Pune,
  • TVS iQube in Pune and Bangalore,
  • Yakuza Rubie,
  • Evolet Pony,
  • Okinawa Raise and
  • Hero Electric Photon 48V.

The barriers for electric vehicle development are customer perception, slow, cumbersome and cost.

Schemes for EV Development in India

The various schemes in India to promote EVs are listed below.

  1. Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Electric Vehicle (FAME) and
  2. NITI Aayog’s three phase approach for adoption of EV/HEV.

FAME

The release of FAME was to support electric/hybrid vehicles makers. The focuses of FAME are technology progress, demand formation, preliminary projects and charging infrastructures in the year 2015.  The First phase of the FAME scheme covering both hybrid and electric vehicles was implemented during  2015-2017. The Second phase of FAME scheme covers 1.7 lakh vehicles which have received subsidiary worth INR203 crores so far. Presently, the subsidy of INR 7,500 to INR 22,00 is provided for two wheelers. And the subsidy of INR 13,000 to INR 6,10,000 is provided for four wheelers.

NITI Aayog’s three phases

NITI Aayog uses a three-phase approach for adaptation of EVs/HEVs. The three major themes are system integration, mutual groundwork development, and scaled manufacturing.

Scaled manufacturing will make hybrid and electric vehicle supply. System integration will form demand and  improve efficacy from side to side data sharing and targeted policy frameworks. Mutual groundwork development will create a helpful environment for passengers, cyclists and pedestrians.

During 2017-2019, the first phase was introduced and it was called “notching the arrow planned”.  It cultivated the solutions that are nearly fiscal.

The second phase “drawing the bow scheduled” polishes and scales the phase 1.  During 2020-2323, phase II will be implemented. The options have become economical and equipped for distribution in phase II. Concurrently, community and private-sector action remains to lay the foundation for improving the financial side and viability of future chances.

The third phase “Permitting the arrow fly” has more chances to become fiscal and scale to the national level. During 2024-2032, Phase III will be introduced. Evolving ideas and complete solutions benefit assimilate technology, policy, and business mock-ups at a national scale.

image sources

  • Blog_eMotional_SocialSlide: Dr.M.Bharathiraja