Applications of Nano Technology in Civil Engineering
This blog introduces the latest advancements in the structure of civil engineering by emphasizing the use of nanomaterials and their beneficial effects on the nanoscale. The use of nanoparticles like nano-silica, carbon nanotubes, graphene, nano clays, nano CaCO3, nano TiO2, etc., grows exponentially over time to achieve high-performance compounds. These nanomaterials furthermore improve the mechanical properties and produce functional properties. Different forms of nanomaterials used in civil engineering expand global performance. Concrete is the most extensively used building material in the world. Concrete is produced by mixing aggregate (fine and coarse) with cement and water. Of all the above constituents, cement is the most expensive as well as energy efficient. In consequence, the construction field, researchers are exploring new methods and techniques to improve the mechanical efficiency of concrete buildings. This performance accomplished by incorporating advances in nanotechnology. The Nanotechnology can be roughly classified into categories such as (i) insertion of nanoparticles, (ii) accumulation of carbon nanostructures, and (iii) insertion of industrial waste items into concrete.
Nanomaterials can be naturally occurring, created as a by-product of combustion reactions, or intentionally engineered to perform specific functions. Nano particles are any material of a nanosized thickness of less than 100 nm (nanometres). Nanoscience is the study of nanomaterials used in chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering. Nanotechnology refers to the guidance of individual atoms and molecules at the atomic level. There are two main forms of nanotechnology. Nanoscience is the study of nanomaterials used in chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering. Nanotechnologies developed new insulating materials. These insulators m are nanofoams, vacuum insulated panels and nanostructured aerogels. Nanotechnology had a significant impact in the field of civil engineering. A Couple of nanotechnology applications were progressive to embellish the durability and enhanced prosecution of construction material, achieve energy efficiency, and overall safety of the buildings facilitative conservation and providing enhanced living comfort. Use of Nanotechnology in Cement, Concrete, Steel, Glass, Wood, Pavement, and other areas. Nanotechnology is used in Glass, Wood, And Other Areas as well. It helps in improving the efficiency and quality of building materials such as self-repairing, self-cleaning, fire protection, corrosion protection, insulation, and countless applications.
Carbon nanofibers and carbon nanotubes also have been used to modify the strength modulus and ductility of concrete. Carbon nanofibers are bridging to fix the cracks on this material. To modify the cement properties through the nanoporous, thin-film coating is a technology used on aggregates. It uses water suspended nanoparticles to aggregate through tip or spray coating methods this is a cost-effective method as a small number of nanoparticle additives as needed to obtain significant results as opposed to the conventional addition methods interesting example of concrete. Some of the applications of nanotechnology are using white cement containing titanium dioxide nanoparticles can have property of photocatalytic have been pragmatic to glass windows to crumble dirt particles that sticky to the glass or in concrete structure photo catalysts decompose organic matters that dirty the surface the organic compounds affected by the photocatalyst includes dirt biological organisms airborne pollutants smoke nitrous oxides and sulfur oxides the catalyzed compounds break down into oxygen-carbon dioxide water sulfate nitrate and other molecules that are either beneficial or bad for the environment the products of the catalytic reaction are easy to remove from the treated surface. Nanotechnology can be gainfully applied in cementitious material to address the issue of durability and sustainability in recent development addition of silica nanoparticles has received widespread attention or interest because of its high reactivity and it gives nucleation as well as pozzolanic effect to the cement base material which improves the permeability mechanical strength and durability of the material. By using the sol-gel technique and flame spray pyrolysis method for the preparation of nanoparticles dispersed powdered spherical sized silica nanoparticles have been developed for casting mortar.
Microstructure development at an early stage directly affects the properties of cement-based material a scanning electron microscopy along with energy-dispersive x-ray is a technique that provides morphological and chemical changes powder x-ray diffraction system provides the methodological changes which are occurring in cement-based material over some time compressive strength results of mortar sample shows that nano-engineered mortar at seven days is more than 28 days compressive strength of control samples 40 to 45 percent reduction in chloride diffusion was also observed and calcium hydroxide content is reduced up to 50 to 60% more hydration products are formed and degree of hydration is 71% improved at early ages and gel porosity is increased by 55% and all these factors indicate that more amount of calcium silicate hydrate is forming therefore the addition of silica nanoparticle will provide speedy construction high mechanical strength and higher durability.
Applications of Nano technology
Health care and medicine
To cure for heart attack, eye surgery, chemotherapy, etc. by using Nano detectors and also supervision blood sugar levels. Nano particles are used for the treatment of neurological disorders and used to remove from the blood by using Nano sponges. Nano particles are used for Spotting cancer cells in the blood. Used to fabricate DNA sequences work properly by Nano spores
Solar paints or solar paints can supersede solar panels. Maneuvering solar paint to a surface can ensnare solar energy and transmute it into electricity. It can be used at home and in the car. The Wind Energy Generator (nanogenerator) is a flexible, thin sheet that can generate potential energy when bent
Agriculture and Food
Nano technology used as a Nano fertilizers and Hybrid polymers are used in packaging and to reduce spoilage. Sensors for food-borne pathogens and Nano emulsions – to reduce bacteria on produce. Nanoparticles based on titanium dioxide – used as antimicrobial agents
In India Research and work on nanotechnology was started in 2001 with initial funding of Rs. 60 crores with the formation of the Nano Science and Technology Initiative. In 2007, Nano mission was started by the Government of India it is a 5-year program, it was allocated a budget of Rs 1,000 crores. It had a wider scope of objectives and much larger funding. Many institutions and departments were roped in for the work such as the Department of IT, DRDO, Department of Biotechnology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), etc. In both IIT Bombay and IISC Bangalore, National Centers for Nanofabrication and Nanoelectronics were established.
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